Sudan

Sudan receives the flows of the White Nile from the equatorial lakes region as well as the flows of the Blue Nile and the other major tributaries rising in Ethiopia and in Sudan. These tributaries meet in Sudan, forming the Main Nile, and flow north into Egypt. The Nile Basin constitutes the largest part of the country’s area and a high proportion of the available water resources. Sudan has total population of 33.5 million people and total area of 2,505,813 sq. km

SUDAN'S PARTICIPATION IN NBI AND LEVEL OF INTEGRATION

The Ministry of Irrigation and Water resources is NBI’s focal point ministry and its Minister is a member of the Nile-COM.  Two senior officials from the Ministry represent the country on the Nile Technical Advisory Committee (Nile-TAC). These are the Chairman for Water Resource Technical Organ and the Director Hydraulic Research Station respectively.

To facilitate in-country coordination of NBI’s activities, Sudan established a focal point institution within the National NBI Office whose specific roles include: to provide a forum for in-country coordination of NBI’s projects and activities; to assist with promoting coordination and integration with other relevant national activities and initiatives as well as logistical arrangements for incoming NBI missions.

The country contributes US$ 130,000 annually towards NBI’s operational costs. This is in addition to providing counterpart funds for all investment projects, as well as hosting and meeting all local for Projects Management Units based in Sudan, namely the Nile Trans-boundary Environment Action Project (NTEAP) from October 2003 to December 2009..  Also worth noting is the in-kind contribution to NBI in terms of supervision and technical guidance by Nile-TAC members, staff time by national staff attending specialized meetings on NBI issues organized at national level, hosting incoming NBI missions and offering office space for Project Management Units based in the country.

Furthermore, staff time through either secondment or direct hire of coordinators based on relevant sector institutions is increasingly being devoted to NBI’s different programs and projects.  Steady progress has been made in mainstreaming/integrating NBI activities in the national planning and budgeting processes.

NBI’S DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN SUDAN

Sudan is implementing NBI’s basin-wide capacity building projects and sub-regional investment projects. The projects are identified and prepared through a participatory process.

CAPACITY BUILDING PROJECTS

Sudan successfully participated in the implementation of the largely completed basin-wide capacity building projects.  The on-going Water Resources Planning and Management (WRPM) project is developing the necessary basin-wide management tools and building capacity for best practices. The Regional Power Trade (RPT) project is building capacity for power trade and development through preparation of the Comprehensive Basin Wide assessment of power options in the Nile Basin.

INVESTMENT PROJECTS

These projects fall under the Water Resources Development function of NBI. The portfolio of investment projects is categorised into three sectors: Power, Agriculture, and River Basin Management. This represents the priority needs of member countries – for increased access to reliable and cheap electricity, for increased food security and productivity and for increased protection and management of the environment as a basis for livelihoods of the basin populations. Projects active in Sudan are spearheaded, prepared and coordinated by NBI’s Eastern Nile Technical Regional Office (ENTRO) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and the Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Program (NELSAP) Coordination Unit based in Kigali, Rwanda. Project implementation is undertaken at national level.

INVESTMENT PROJECTS UNDER IMPLEMENTATION

Power

Eastern Nile Joint Multipurpose Program

The project is looking into cooperative and sustainable development and management of the common Blue/Main Nile water resources, putting in place the requisite trans-boundary institutions, linking the beneficiary countries through multi-purpose storage and power system infrastructure, modernizing irrigation systems and promoting related investments such as in transport, private sector, rural electrification.

Ethiopia – Sudan Transmission Interconnection

This project aims at increasing reliability of supply in Ethiopia and Sudan by taking advantage of the hydro-thermal complementarities and the variability of the peak demand in the two systems. The Project included two Components: The Technical Feasibility study for the Ethiopia/Sudan Transmission Interconnection as well as the Environmental and Social Impact assessment

Eastern Nile Regional Power Trade Investment Program

To promote EN regional power trade through coordinated planning and development of power generation and transmission interconnection and creation of an enabling environment.

Agriculture

Flood Preparedness and Early Warning Project

This project will establish a regional institutional basis and strengthen the existing capacities of the Eastern Nile countries in flood forecasting, mitigation and management, promote regional cooperation as well as to enhance the readiness of these countries to subsequent implementation of the later phases of FPEW projects.

Regional Agricultural Trade and Productivity Project

This project will carry out studies that will highlight potential agriculture and agricultural trade opportunities in the Nile basin countries and beyond. It will also increase knowledge of basin agriculture in NBI institutions as well as promote more efficient and sustainable use of water resources and economically viable investment in agriculture.

Eastern Nile Irrigation and Drainage Study

The project supports the development and expansion of irrigated agriculture as well as improvement in the productivity of small and large-scale agriculture through improved agricultural water use. So far, 15,000 ha equally divided between Ethiopia and Sudan have been identified and studied up to feasibility level. At the same time, a pilot study on the existing irrigation projects in Ethiopia and Sudan has been conducted. The study covered three small scale irrigation schemes of Ethiopia and Rahad irrigation scheme in Sudan

River Basin Management

Eastern Nile Integrated Watershed Management

The objective of this project is to promote wider adoption of sustainable land and water management practices and technologies to reduce land degradation and increase agricultural productivity. The project is being implemented in the Atbara, Bau (or Ingessana), Dinder, and Lau subwatersheds in Sudan.Among other things, the Project will support beneficiary countries in overcoming natural resources degradation and promote sustainable livelihoods among the communities within the hot spot watersheds by employing various development interventions. This is in addition to contribution towards the reduction of sedimentation of downstream facilities.
 

Lake Nasser/Nubia Management Framework

The project will provide the overall framework for integrated Lake Nasser/Nubia basin management to guide development within the lake basin in order to ensure sustainable and integrated development without  endangering the lake basin ecosystems.

Baro-Akobo-Sobat Multipurpose water Resources Project

This project will enhance the water resources planning and management capabilities in the sub-basin through preparation of water resources development plans and projects that respect social, environmental and economic sustainability.

 

Eastern Nile Planning,Information and Knowledge Management Project

The development objective of the ENPM Project is that countries in the Eastern Nile operationalise an improved decision support modeling framework to identify water-related investments and evaluate them in a regional context.  The project is intended to strengthen the knowledge, modeling, and stakeholder interaction capacity of regional and national institutions to plan for water resources investments in a regional context, with appropriate regard to economic, environmental and social aspects.

BENEFITS OF THE NILE COOPERATION

Through its three core functions of: Building cooperation, Water Resource Management  and Water Resource Development, NBI provides Sudan with:

Building Cooperation

• A platform upon which the Nile Council of Ministers can dialogue on management and development of the shared water resources of the Nile

• A forum for technical exchange of ideas and experiences within water resources, natural resource management, power generation and trade

• Capacity building activities aimed at strengthening the ability of both people and institutions in different water related areas

Water Resource Management

• A mechanism for basin wide exchange of information and prior notification for water resources development

• State-of-the-art technical tools for organizing, storing, analysis and disseminating data and information collected by NBI programs and projects, including computer based databases with information such as discharge data for sub-basins and watershed, GIS information, biodiversity inventories, stakeholder inventories. The Nile Decision Support System (DSS) tool to facilitate strategic based wide planning and knowledge based policy and decision making. Also interactive CDs and web-based inventories such as the Nile-Information System (Nile-IS).

• Technical support in strengthening national water policy frameworks with a key focus on strengthening the consideration of the trans-boundary dimension.

• Knowledge on the basin’s water resources and monitoring of the basin’s health

• Analysis and scenarios development for sustainable resource management and for planning to maximize development opportunities at basin, sub basin and national levels

• Analytic tools and a shared information system that will enable monitoring and the sustainable management of the basin

• Better understanding and cooperative management of risk for a changing and uncertain climate

Water Resource Development

• Identification of development opportunities focused on power trade and generation, agriculture and river basin management

• Preparation of investment projects which contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction

• Assessing costs and benefits of participation in proposed projects and facilitate agreements on how to share costs and benefits with other beneficiary country.

• Projects implementation support including resource mobilization and preparation of multi-country agreements

• Technical assistance, know-how and expertise in project supervision

SPECIFIC BENEFITS INCLUDE:

Early benefits

• Ability to share and exchange water resource data with the rest of the NBI member countries, following the adoption by the Nile-COM in July 2009, of the formal protocol developed under NBI.

• Use of the Decision Support System (DSS), a Basin-wide planning tool which enables decision makers to select the optimum investment planning options and best water resources management practices at national and regional levels.

• The Eta rainfall forecast model improved for better performance

• Power Interconnection Infrastructure projects with Egypt and Ethiopia

• Increased human capacity including Post Graduate training in Integrated Water Resource Management

• Trans-boundary policy frameworks, policies, guidelines, data and information base for water resources management.

• Community Based Micro Grant Projects demonstrating environment management practices and income generation.

Future Benefits

• Framework for integrated Lake Nasser/Nubia basin management

• Data and information for integrated water resources development in the Baro-Akobo-Sobat sub basin

• Reduced loss of life and damage of property through flood and drought management

• Expansion of irrigated agriculture, improved productivity of existing small and large scale agriculture through efficient water use

• Increased and stable power supply leading to economic growth and better quality of life of citizens

• Increased food security and productivity

Indirect benefits

• Ability to overcome associated impacts of climate change that are mostly manifesting through the hydrological cycle. These include floods and droughts that lead to serious water scarcity and food shortage.

• Enhanced Regional cooperation, peace, security and political stability, markets and trade hence economic growth.

• The annual Nile Basin Football Tournament.

 

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