This Training Manual summarizes the major components of water conservation techniques practiced in rainfed smallholder agriculture. It focuses more on soil moisture retention and soil fertility management. It covers four specific technologies adaptable by smallholder farmers in the Nile Basin countries. These are; crop husbandry, vegetative barriers, cover crops, mulches, soil nutrient management, conservation tillage and agroforestry. For each intervention, the salient characteristics
of the technology are described, as well as the design, management and maintenance.